Effects of an epidural anaesthesia component on puppies born by caesarean section
Agnieszka Antonczyk and Malgorzata Ochota, Wroclaw University, Poland
Regional centro-axial blocks are recommended for uncomplicated caesarean sections in women but are impractical as a stand-alone technique in veterinary patients. The authors investigate the effects of epidural anaesthesia alongside gaseous anaesthesia on the dam and the health and vitality of puppies. In 36 bitches undergoing elective procedures, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Bitches receiving additional epidural anaesthesia with lidocaine required lower doses of isoflurane. There were episodes of maternal hypotension in the combined anaesthesia group, but this did not affect umbilical blood gas levels. Newborns in the epidural group became fully alert more quickly.
Use of serum biochemical markers to predict onset of parturition in bitches
Johan Oliviette Nöthling and others, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Knowing when a bitch is likely to whelp is of great practical importance to both breeder and veterinarian. However, estimating the day of parturition from when the bitch was mated is unreliable, and techniques such as ultrasound appear to be of limited value. The authors investigated the relationship between serum progesterone and its prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PFGM) and the timing of cervical dilation. Their results indicate that around 90 percent of bitches show a 20 percent increase in PFGM over a 12-hour period within 36 hours of the onset of parturition. They also found that the metabolite can provide a useful indicator in managing the whelping bitch.
Incidence of complications in female cats undergoing neutering by ovarian pedicle tie
Karla Rigdon-Bestle and others, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), Ashville, North Carolina
Ovarian pedicle tie is a procedure used for ovariohysterectomies in high-quality, high-volume spay-neuter clinics as it requires up to 30 percent less time than the traditional method involving suturing to ligate the ovarian pedicle. The authors investigated the frequency of complications in cats treated using this method, as well as the influence of the surgeon’s level of experience in using the technique. Findings from 15,927 procedures showed an incidence of haemorrhage of 0.12 percent and that such events occurred more commonly when performed by veterinary students. They conclude that the method is safe in the hands of experienced surgeons or by novices with appropriate supervision.
Clinical signs and outcomes in cases of prostatitis and prostatic abscessation in dogs
Charlotte Lea and others, Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists, Ringwood, Hampshire
Prostatitis in male dogs is likely due to an ascending infection of normal urethral bacteria. There is a current shortage of information on the clinical significance and treatment of the condition. The authors describe the findings in 82 cases of prostatitis or prostatic abscessation seen at three UK referral hospitals. Biopsy samples are needed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other diseases such as neoplasia. Antimicrobial therapy and castration were largely successful in treating prostatitis, while needle drainage was effective in prostatic abscessation cases.
Intra-abdominal pressure in pregnant queens undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy
Nolan Chalifoux and others, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Pregnancy is accompanied by various physiological changes to prevent organ dysfunction caused by pressure from the increasing abdominal contents. The authors investigated changes in intra-abdominal pressure, abdominal perfusion pressure and haemodynamics in late-term pregnant queens undergoing elective ovariohysterectomies. Their findings indicate that haemodynamics were impaired and abdominal perfusion pressures were significantly lower than normal in queens undergoing this procedure, so increased monitoring is warranted.
Lipid droplets in healthy and pyometra-affected canine endometrium
Natascha Leitner and others, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
Lipid droplets have been identified in the surface and crypt epithelium of the canine endometrium, although their function is unclear. The authors compared the nature and distribution of these lipid droplets in healthy canine uteri and dogs with pyometra. They found that the number and size of these droplets was greater in samples from dogs with pyometra. Meanwhile, in vitro investigations suggest that the lipids may be present as an energy source for the developing early embryo. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of these lipid droplets in healthy bitches and pyometra cases.
Reversible infertility in a male dog following long-term ketoconazole treatment
Anna Domoslawska and Slawomir Zdunczyk, University of Warmia, Poland
Ketoconazole is an antifungal agent known to affect spermatogenesis in rodents, but there is little information on its effects on the fertility of male dogs. The authors report the case of a seven-year-old male American Staffordshire Terrier which had received ketoconazole for three months to treat Malassezia dermatitis. The dog appeared to have a reduced libido and three planned matings had been unsuccessful. A clinical examination revealed low testosterone and a complete absence of spermatozoa in the dog’s ejaculate. Treatment with ketoconazole was withdrawn, and sperm quality and hormone levels returned to normal within 100 days.
Pyometra associated with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in two bitches
Doroteja Huber and others, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal bacterium commonly found on the mucosa and skin surfaces of dogs. It is often associated with skin, eye and ear infections. The authors describe finding S. pseudintermedius in two cases of pyometra in bitches (a six-year-old Pomeranian and a two-year-old West Highland White Terrier). The first was identified following a post-mortem examination and the second during investigation of a patient with suppurative peritonitis, in which treatment was successful. These cases demonstrate that this organism is a possible aetiological agent in pyometra in bitches.