A look-through the recent international literature on diagnostic imaging - Veterinary Practice
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A look-through the recent international literature on diagnostic imaging

A look through the latest literature: 3 of 37

Ultrasound measurements in
the diagnosis of feline small
bowel diseases

Lise Daniaux and others, University
of California, Davis

Gastrointestinal lymphoma and
inflammatory bowel disease are both
common disorders in domestic cats that
are known to cause thickening of the
muscularis propria layer in the small
intestine.

The authors investigated the
appearance of these changes on
ultrasonography and assessed the
potential diagnostic utility of the
findings. They quantified the thickness
of the muscularis propria layer in the
duodenum, jejunum and ileum in 14 cats
affected by small cell T-cell lymphoma
or inflammatory bowel disease and 19
healthy cats.

They found that the muscularis
propria layer was significantly thicker in
the diseased cats with a mean thickness
twice that of the healthy cats. They
suggest that a muscularis to submucosa
ratio greater than one is indicative of an abnormal bowel segment. Colic lymph
nodes were also increased in size in cats
with lymphoma, compared with the
healthy controls.

In cats with gastrointestinal
lymphoma and histologic transmural
infiltration of the small intestines, the
colic or jejunal lymph nodes were
rounded, increased in size and
hypoechoic.

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 16
(2): 89-98.

Use of Doppler ultrasound to
assess blood flow in the feet
of horses with laminitis

Carla Aguirre and others, University
of Murcia, Spain

Horses with laminitis have been shown
to have decreased blood flow in the foot
with regions of hypoperfusion and
ischaemic tissue damage. The authors
examined the role of Doppler
ultrasound in investigating vascular
dynamics in horses with systemic
inflammatory response syndrome or
laminitis.

The diameter of the lateral
palmar digital artery was significantly
greater in the laminitic horses than those
with SIRS. Their findings demonstrate
that ultrasonography may be a useful
complementary tool to detect digital
blood flow changes in horses with
laminitis or with SIRS, especially if they have a palpable increase in digital pulse
intensity.
Journal of the American

Veterinary Medical
Association
243 (12): 1,756-1,761.

Cardiac MRI findings in a dog
with diffuse pericardial
mesothelioma

Ricardo Guillem Gallach and
Wilfried Mai, University of
Pennsylvania

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a
relatively new technique in veterinary
medicine and was used in investigations
of a dog with recurrent pericardial
effusion and a questionable right atrial
mass lesion on echocardiography.

The
authors found that the method provided
excellent anatomical information about
the heart and surrounding structures
and helped to rule out the presence of a
focal mass. A diffuse thickening and
enhancement of the pericardium was
detected. A pericardiectomy was
performed and histopathology revealed
a diffuse pericardial mesothelioma.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital
Association
49 (6): 398-402.

Computed tomography
findings in diabetic cats with
hypersomatotropism

Christopher Lamb and others, Royal
Veterinary College, London

Hypersomatotropism is the excessive
secretion of growth hormone by the
pituitary gland, which causes insulin
resistance and the enlargement of the
extremities associated with acromegaly.

The authors compared the computed
tomography images from 68
hypersomatotropic cats and 36 healthy
controls. They identified consistent
changes in features of both hard and
soft tissues in the heads of affected cats.
However, the differences between
affected and unaffected cats were small
and recognising feline acromegaly on the
basis of cranial features alone would be
difficult.

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 16
(2): 99-108.

Computed tomography images
from anaesthetised and
sedated birds

James Kusmierczyk and others,
Texas A&M University

Computed tomography imaging has
been used relatively rarely in birds due to
the risks in those patients associated
with general anaesthesia using inhaled
gases. The authors investigated the
effectiveness of sedation when
undertaking CT examinations of
psittacine birds.

Two radiologists
reviewed images taken under general
anaesthesia and when sedated with
butorphanol and midazolam. The two
methods produced images of
comparable quality and so sedation may
be a practical and safer alternative to
general anaesthesia for examinations of avian patients.

Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine 22 (3): 251-
257.

Dental radiographic findings in
cats with chronic
gingivostomatitis

Nicodin Farcas and others,
University of California, Davis

Feline chronic gingivostomatitis is
characterised by chronic, severe
inflammation of the gingiva, buccal
mucosa and associated structures.
Radiography is routinely used in the
diagnosis of the condition but there are
no systematic, large scale studies on
those images reported in the veterinary
literature.

The authors compared
radiological findings from 101 cats with
FCGS and 101 controls with other
forms of oral disease. Their results
show that FCGS was associated with
more widely distributed and severe
periodontitis with a higher prevalence of
external inflammatory root resorption
and retained roots than other oral
diseases.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
Association
244 (3): 339-345.

Identification of a canine
vaginal leiomyoma with
computed tomography

Andrea Weissman and others,
University of Georgia

Leiomyomas are the most common
form of vaginal neoplasm in dogs,
usually occurring in intact animals, as the
tumours appear to have oestrogen-
dependent characteristics. The authors
describe a case in a 13-year-old spayed
female Labrador with a two-week
history of vaginal bleeding.

A soft tissue
mass was present on abdominal
radiography and a computed
tomography exam and a CT vagino-urethrogram localised the mass to the
vagina. This helped characterise the
lesion and aided surgical planning. A
total vaginectomy was performed and
the leiomyoma confirmed on
histological analysis.

Journal of the American Animal Hospital
Association
49 (6): 394-397.

Imaging in the detection of
dynamic laryngeal collapse in
horses

Cathrine Fjordbakk and others, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Osio

Dynamic laryngeal collapse is an
obstructive disorder of the equine upper
airway normally diagnosed using exercise
endoscopy while replicating the flexed
head position of harness racehorses
when racing. The authors used
radiography and ultrasonography to
examine the effects of poll flexion on
rostrocaudal laryngeal positioning in
resting horses with dynamic laryngeal
collapse and compared the results with
those from healthy animals.

They found that in the affected horses, poll flexion
advanced the larynx more rostrally and
resulted in a decreased airway lumen
width compared with the control horses.
These imaging techniques may therefore
help to identify affected horses while at
rest.

Equine Veterinary Journal 45 (6): 705-710.

Assessment of left ventricular
volumes by echocardiography
and MRI

Judith Meyer and others, Hannover University of Veterinary Medicine

Non-invasive evaluation of
haemodynamic variables is an
essential part of any veterinary
cardiological examination. The
authors compare left ventricular
volume measurements acquired using
1-D, 2-D and 3-D echocardiography
with those derived from magnetic
resonance imaging.

They found no
significant differences in end-diastolic
volume, end-systolic volume and
ejection fraction measurements
achieved with MRI and those using
real-time triplane echocardiography
with a 3-D probe. The latter
technique would, therefore, be a
suitable method for routine veterinary
cardiac examination, without the
general anaesthetic required for MRI
studies.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 74 (9): 1,223-1,230.

Thoracic radiography
measurements of
subcutaneous fat thickness

Deborah Linder and others, Tufts University, Massachusetts

Various quantitative methods have been
described for estimating body fat levels
in dogs but body condition scoring
remains the most practical and widely
used method.

The authors looked at
measurements of subcutaneous fat
thickness measured on thoracic
radiographs and compared the findings
with standard condition scores. In the
87 client-owned dogs examined, they
found a significant association between
body condition scores and radiographic
measurements of fat thickness. They
suggest that these measurements could
aid in retrospectively assigning condition
scores to dogs in studies where such
scores were not recorded.

American Journal of Veterinary Research 74
(11): 1,400-1,403.

Scintigraphy assessment of
displaced and non-displaced
pelvic fractures in horses

Simon Hennessy and others, University of Melbourne

The availability of scintigraphy
examinations has aided the identification
of incomplete fatigue fractures of the
ileum in racehorses. The authors use
this technique to characterise displaced
and non-displaced fractures of the
pelvis in thoroughbred racehorses and assess their effects on subsequent
performance.

Twelve horses with
displaced pelvic fractures raced fewer
times within 24 months of the diagnosis
than the 19 horses with non-displaced
fractures but there was no statistical
difference between the race earnings of
those two groups. Therefore, the
prognosis is good for those patients that
survive the initial post-injury period.

Australian Veterinary Journal 91 (6): 246-
250.

Radiological features of spinal
meningiomas in eight dogs

Roberto Jose-Lopez and others, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

Meningiomas are the most common
primary spinal cord tumours in dogs.
The authors describe the clinical,
radiological and histological features of
eight cases. Myelography showed
intradural or extramedullary lesions in
three of four cases examined using that
method. Magnetic resonance imaging
revealed hyperintense
intradural/extramedullary masses on
pre-contrast T-1 and T-2 weighted
images with homogeneous contrast
enhancement in seven of eight cases.

One dog was shown to have an unusual
presentation with a cerebrospinal fluid-
filled subarachnoid cavity dorsal to the
cervical spinal cord.

Canadian Veterinary Journal 54 (10): 948-
954.

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